The TOS-1A is an improved version of the original TOS-1 heavy flamethrower system. It was adopted by the Russian Army in 2001. Sometimes this systems is nicknamed the “Solntesepek”. The TOS-1A was used by the Russian Army in Chechnya. Some sources report that this system was used during Russian military actions in Ukraine. This heavy flamethrower system has been exported to Azerbaijan (18), Iraq (4) and Kazakhstan (3). Algeria reportedly ordered a number of these systems. Iraqi systems have seen combat during the fights with Islamic State fighters. The TOS-1A was also used during the Syrian Civil War. The TOS-1A heavy flamethrower system is intended for direct fire support of advancing infantry and main battle tanks, and moves in their combat orders. It is extremely effective against entrenched personnel. The TOS-1A is used to clear out buildings, field fortifications and bunkers. It is also effective against light armored vehicles. The heavy flamethrower system is generally similar to multiple launch rocket systems, however it fires different types of rockets and has a shorter firing range. The main element of the TOS-1A system is the BM-1 launch vehicle. Comparing with the original TOS-1 a number of launching tubes was reduced from 30 to 24, arranged in three rows of eight tubes each. New launching tubes are longer in comparison with the previous heavy flamethrower system. There are at least two types of 220 mm rockets. These are 3.3 and 3.7 m long and weight 173 and 217 kg respectively. The TOS-1A uses longer rockets and has a longer range than its predecessor. Maximum range of fire was increased to 6 000 m. Minimum range is 400 m. There are at least two types of warheads – incendiary and thermobaric. The thermobaric weapons are also called vacuum or fuel-air explosives. This type of munitions releases a large cloud of flammable gas and causes massive explosions. It is used to clear out buildings, bunkers and other fortifications. The TOS-1A heavy flamethrower system launches a single rocket, or a pair of two rockets within 0.5 s. Full salvo duration is 12 seconds when launching rockets manually an 6 seconds when launching all rockets in automatic mode. The BM-1 launching vehicle is operated by a crew of three, including commander, gunner and driver. It is fitted with a modern fire control system. All guidance and firing procedures are made from inside of the vehicle, without exposing the crew to enemy fire. The launcher vehicle can stop and fire at a visible target within 90 seconds from travelling. The TOS-1A launcher is mounted on a modified T-72A main battle tank chassis. Vehicle is powered by a V-84MS diesel engine, developing 840 hp. It is fitted with a self-entrenching blade. Armor protection of this system is similar to that of the T-72A MBT. There was at least one prototype of the TOS-1, based on T-80U main battle tank chassis. This heavy flamethrower is supported by a new TZM-T reloading vehicle, which is used to transport and reload rockets. It carries a full set of reload rockets in two pods for 12 rockets each. A crane is mounted between these units. Reloading vehicle also carries 400 liters of fuel for the BM-1 launch vehicle. The TZM-T is operated by a crew of three. Also recently appeared a reloading vehicle, based on KamAZ-6350 8×8 truck. It also carries two pods of reload rockets with a crane mounted in between.